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No. 01/April 13, 2001

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Welcome to the First 2001 Issue of the Bulletin
Several Extension specialists in the Department of Crop Sciences and Extension educators throughout the state will be writing articles for the Bulletin this year, and we all are prepared keep you informed about pest situations and crop development as the season unfolds. State specialists will provide information based on research trials, observations, and reports from all over the state, as well as from other sources in the Midwest. Extension educators will offer regional reports, keeping you apprised of more local developments in northern, west-central, east-central, and southern Illinois.

Changes in the Bulletin on the Web Are Forthcoming
"Hits" for the Web version of the Bulletin continued to increase at a significant rate in 2000. Consequently, we will focus a lot more effort on improving the manner in which we deliver information electronically in 2001.

At some point during the year, visitors to the Web site will find a new look, as well as new, helpful features that will enhance our ability to deliver information. Look for even more color photographs, more video clips, links to other important Web sites, and textual and audio updates in between issues.

Will Another Mild Winter Promote Insect Problems?
In December, many of us were braced for a rather severe winter. Well, severe winter weather never really developed. So, as is always the case, we wonder what effect the winter has had on a host of insects that often invade our fields. This article offers a "snapshot" of some key insect pests of alfalfa, corn, and soybean and try to guess the impact of the winter environment on their survival.

Wireworms are among the handful of soil-dwelling insect pests that concern corn producers each growing season. Although wireworms damage less than 1% of the corn crop in Illinois every year, growers with wireworm problems do not consider wireworms to be a secondary pest. However, concern about potential wireworm damage does not justify the widespread use of soil insecticides on first-year corn planted after soybeans. Therefore, it is important for growers to have some way to anticipate wireworm problems.

This article discusses the life cycle of the wireworm and provides instructions for establishing bait stations.

Seed Treatments and Corn Rootworm Protection: Buyer Beware
As producers continue with preparations for spring planting, many are still unsure what to expect from seed treatments regarding corn rootworm protection. Although we have been very clear on this issue, questions continue to linger. This article presents efficacy data for many soil insecticides.

Western Corn Rootworm Populations in Soybean Fields 2000: Outlook for Larval Injury in Rotated Cornfields for 2001
In 2000, populations of western corn rootworm adults were very impressive in many soybean fields, especially those in east-central Illinois. If corn rootworm larvae hatch under favorable soil conditions, root injury concerns could be a common story during the 2001 growing season.

This article includes a summary of western corn rootworm capture averages and information about how they should be interpreted.

European Corn Borer: Outlook for 2001
With the continuing hoopla concerning transgenic crops and the question whether or not to plant a BT hybrid in 2001, it may be worthwhile to remember that densities of overwintering borers have been very low for 2 consecutive years.

With evidence that European corn borer densities are very low, is the use of a BT hybrid a sound pest-management approach for this spring? Is the use of a BT hybrid a good economic choice this spring? These are among many of the questions that producers undoubtedly were thinking about when they made seed selection choices this past winter.

What Can We Expect From Soybean Aphids This Year?
In 2000 the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, invaded soybean fields throughout the upper Midwest, primarily in northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, southeastern Michigan, southwestern Minnesota, and southern Wisconsin. Now the burning question is, "Will the soybean aphid survive winters in the Midwest?" We suspect that they will.

We still have much to learn about this new pest of soybean, but we are poised to learn as much as we can in 2001 if infestations in soybean fields develop.

Alfalfa Weevil Will Be the First Insect We'll Watch For
As usual, the alfalfa weevil will receive considerable attention in the early issues of the Bulletin because it's the first insect pest of field crops in Illinois to become active each spring. We will provide actual and projected accumulated degree-days in issue no. 2 of the Bulletin, which will be published during the first week in April.

Corrections for the 2001 Illinois Agricultural Pest Management Handbook
This article provides corrections to Chapter 2 of the 2001 Illinois Agricultural Pest Management Handbook.

Getting the Most From Your Grass Control Dollars
With increased nitrogen and fuel prices this year, many growers are wondering what are some ways to help reduce input costs. One option would be to maximize weed control by optimizing herbicide inputs. Currently, there are a number of growers and applicators considering early preplant (EPP) applications of acetamide herbicides for grass control in corn. These EPP applications have been widely used over a number of years.

One reason EPP applications have become so popular is that they help spread out the workload for the herbicide applicator. One question is how EPP applications perform compared with applications closer to planting.

To get the most out of these soil-applied herbicides, remember: the closer these herbicides are applied to planting, the better the season-long grass control.

A Roundup of Glyphosates--What Are the Differences?
Today numerous glyphosate-containing products are now available for postemergence use in glyphosate-resistant soybean varieties as well as glyphosate-resistant corn hybrids. While all these options contain the same ingredient (glyphosate) that controls the weeds, other differences exist that may influence the level of weed control obtained. This article examines some of these differences and how they influence weed control.

New Guide on Early Spring Weed Identification and Control (NCR 614)
There is a new, color North Central Regional Publication on identification and management of vegetation commonly found in no-till fields. This publication is an excellent guide to aid in identifying those hard-to-identify weed problems in no-till fields, such as winter annuals and biennials.

New Herbicides and Label Changes for 2001
This article reports on the following products, arranged by company:

Aventis (Define 60DF, Balance PRO 4SC)
BASF (Outlook 6E, Guardsman Max 5L)
Bayer (Everest 70WDG)
Dow AgroSciences (Hornet 68.5WDG, FirstRate 84WG, Surpass, FulTime, TopNotch)
DuPont (Steadfast 75WDG, Harmony GT 75DF, Synchrony STS 42DF)
FMC (Aim 40WDG, Command Xtra , Gauntlet)
Monsanto (Amplify 84WDG, Roundup Ultra Max)
Syngenta (Gramoxone Max, Touchdown, Callisto)
Valent (Valor 51WDG)

New Color-Enhanced Herbicide Site-of-Action Bulletin
The University of Illinois Extension bulletin, "Utilizing Herbicide Site of Action to Combat Weed Resistance to Herbicides," establishes a color-coded herbicide site-of-action classification system based on 14 sites of action. This three-page bulletin is intended to enhance the ability of growers to rotate herbicides based on site of action to slow further development of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes.

Resources on the Web
Included in this issue of the Bulletin are "directions" to just a few Web sites that might provide valuable references throughout the year.

Visit the IPM Web Site for Additional Information
The University of Illinois IPM Web site ( is the repository for a lot of information related to management of insects, weeds, and plant diseases. At the IPM Web site, you can have access to many educational materials, including publications and video clips. You also can check out information by category.

2001 Corn and Soybean Classic Presentations on the Web
The presentations from the January 2001 Classic meetings were recorded to make them available to people who were not able to attend. Information Technology and Communication Services staff in the College of ACES taped all 10 presentations at the DeKalb meeting and synchronized the audio with the Power Point slides for presentation on the Web. You can listen to and watch these presentations at the Department of Crop Sciences Web site,

Excellent Photos of the Soybean Aphid
The first step in proper management of an insect pest is accurate identification. To help with this task, this Web site ( includes some excellent photographs of wingless and winged soybean aphids, nymphs and adults, and eggs on Rhamnus.

Some Web Resources Regarding Ag Biotechnology
This article lists some Web sites that you might find useful for background information and issues-focused reporting about biotechnology.

Just the Beginning for Alfalfa Weevils
The onset of alfalfa weevil activity is off to a slower start this spring than it has been the past couple of years. Observations from the field indicate that alfalfa weevil eggs have just begun to hatch and initial signs of injury are apparent. This article discusses scouting alfalfa fields for alfalfa weevils. As temperatures warm up this week and next, expect alfalfa weevil activity to increase rather dramatically.

Searching for Overwintering Corn Borers
In issue no. 1 of the Bulletin (March 16, 2001), we cursorily addressed the effects of winter weather on European and southwestern corn borers. This time we offer visual evidence.

This article discusses how to distinguish between apparently healthy and apparently unhealthy or obviously dead southwestern corn borer larvae, and how to look for corn borer larvae on your own.

First Report of Captures of Black Cutworm Moths
The first captures of black cutworm moths in Illinois for 2001 have been reported.

Seed and Seedling Rot Diseases of Corn and Soybeans
As plans develop for planting corn and soybeans in April and May, it is be beneficial to consider the first wave of diseases that may attack: seed rots and seedling diseases. These diseases can kill seeds and seedlings, reduce plant stands, and significantly reduce yields. This article will briefly cover some key points on the pathogens that cause these diseases, conditions favoring these diseases, and options for management.

Equation Corrections to Issue No. 1
Two errors were made during the editing of equations that appeared in the article "A Roundup of Glyphosates--What Are the Differences?" in issue no. 1. The correct equations are provided here.

Corn and Soybean Herbicide Premixes
Corn and soybean herbicide premixes are (to say the least) numerous and can be confusing with respect to what active ingredients are contained in a given premix as well as the amount of active ingredient applied at a given rate. This article provided tables that list most of the commercially available corn and soybean herbicide premixes.

Is Herbicide Carryover a Concern for 2001?
The number of carryover problems that occurred during the 2000 growing season has raised the question regarding what the potential is for herbicide carryover during the 2001 growing season.

Herbicide carryover is a function of four properties: (1) the herbicide's ability to persist in the soil, (2) the amount of rainfall or soil moisture available for degradation, (3) soil temperature, and (4) soil pH. This article examines the impact of each these factors.

Knockdown Decisions for 2001
Winter annual and early summer annual weeds can cause significant problems, especially when field conditions are not conducive for a timely burndown herbicide application prior to no-till corn or soybean planting. It is not atypical to deal with winter annual weeds ranging from a few inches to more than a foot in height when burndown herbicide applications are made. Proper timing of a burndown herbicide application can often reduce problems later in the season.

Weed Control in Small Grains
The wheat crop across much of Illinois appears to have made it through the winter reasonably well. While some concerns about the crop still exist, weed-control strategies may soon be considered by producers. The vast majority of herbicide options for weed control in wheat are for control of broadleaf species. Wild garlic, especially in the southern portion of Illinois, is an important nonbroadleaf species that can result in significant economic losses if left uncontrolled.

Regional Reports
Extension Center educators, Unit educators, and Unit assistants in northern, west-central, east-central, and southern Illinois prepare regional reports to provide more localized insight into pest situations and crop conditions in Illinois. The reports will keep you up to date on situations in field and forage crops as they develop throughout the season.

This week's issue includes reports from east-central, northern, southern, and west-central Illinois.

Corn Flea Beetle: Expectations for Injury in 2001
White Grubs: Expectations and Management Recommendations for 2001
Black Cutworm Moths Reported Throughout the State
Other Creatures You May Encounter in the Soil
Any New Products Labeled for Control of Corn Rootworm Larvae?
Alfalfa Weevil Activity Evident in Central Illinois
Stewart's Bacterial Wilt--Potential Problem?
Effectiveness of Soil-Applied Herbicides

The Pest Management and Crop Development Bulletin
Executive Editor: Kevin Steffey, Extension Entomologist

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