Wheat disease updates in Illinois

Wheat development in most in Southern Illinois fields is between Feekes growth stage (FGS) 9-10.5.1. Wheat in the central portion of the stage varies from FGS 6-9.

Stripe rust was detected in Eastern Madison County as of 5.5.20, and conditions are favorable for disease development and spread.  This is a cool season disease that loves wet weather and temperatures in the high 40’s through the mid 60’s.  Fields should be scouted for the disease, keeping in mind that it often starts in small pockets, or epicenters in a field, and may not be widespread.

Remember that products for head blight suppression also work on stripe rust (example for a late-arriving epidemic below).  If disease arrives prior to heading on a susceptible variety, you may need to consider

Example of fungicide effects on a wheat variety susceptible to stripe rust. Different letters within a column indicate significant treatment differences using Tukey’s HSD (0.05).   In this trial conducted at the Wye, MD, stripe rust signs and symptoms began at the start of heading, and cool wet weather persisted well past flowering. From Kleczewski, 2017.

Wet weather is elevating the Fusarium head blight (FHB) risk for highly susceptible , flowering wheat.  Cool temperatures in the forecast may reduce FHB risk for flowering wheat in many areas. For an update on Fusarium head blight click here.


General information on plant disease management

We have posted some new materials (along with cool visual aids) on basics of integrated disease management.  Hopefully this information will be useful to you during this busy meeting season.  Click here to view this post.

 

Remember you can sign up for updates to the Illinois Field Crop Disease Hub

Dr. Nathan Kleczewski Extension Field Crop Pathologist UIUC


Efficacy vs management trials

With meeting season going full blast, you will be seeing a slew of data pertaining to disease management and the efficacy of various disease management products.  We posted some general tips to keep in mind at the Illinois Field Crop Disease Hub that can be viewed HERE.

Remember that you can sign up for Hub updates (Hubdates?) by entering your email information on the main page.

Nathan Kleczewski- Field Crop Plant Pathologist and Extension Specialist-UIUC


2019 Applied Research Results, Field Crop Disease and Insect Management now available

The 2019 edition of our annual report on applied research in field crop disease and insect management can be downloaded at the following link: https://uofi.box.com/v/2019PestPathogenARB

 

Each year, University of Illinois plant pathologists and entomologists produce a summary of the applied research we have conducted to inform disease and insect management practices in Illinois. This information provides a non-biased, third-party evaluation of control tactics such as pesticides and resistant varieties for use in corn, soybean, and wheat.

The 2019 report includes information on the following topics:

  • Surveys of insect pests and soybean cyst nematodes
  • Control evaluations for diseases of corn, soybean, and wheat (including southern rust, tar spot, fusarium head blight, and more)
  • Evaluations of Bt trait packages and soil insecticides in corn and foliar insecticides in soybean (including western corn rootworm, bean leaf beetle, dectes stem borer, and others)

image of the cover of the 2019 applied research report

For questions about the guide, please contact:

Nick Seiter, Field Crop Entomologist | nseiter@illinois.edu

Nathan Kleczewski, Field Crop Plant Pathologist | nathank@illinois.edu


UIUC Field Crop Extension Conferences- Sign up today!

What do you need to know for the 2020 growing season? The University of Illinois will address several key topics at four regional conferences around the state in January and February. The meetings will provide a forum for discussion and interaction between participants, University of Illinois researchers, and Extension educators.

Conference dates and locations are:
Jan. 22 DoubleTree by Hilton, Mount Vernon
Jan. 29 Brookens Auditorium at University of Illinois, Springfield
Feb. 4   I-Hotel, Champaign
Feb. 12 Kishwaukee College, Malta

2020 topics and presenters include:

“It’s Tough Out There: Supporting Farmers and Promoting Mental Health” by Josephine Rudolphi, U of I Department of Agricultural & Biological Engineering

“Illinois Weather Review: A Look Back at 2019 & Expectations for 2020 and Beyond” by Trent Ford, Illinois State Water Survey, State Climatologist

“How Should We Manage Today’s Corn Hybrids?” by Emerson Nafziger, U of I Department of Crop Sciences, Professor Emeritus

“Updates in Field Crop Disease Management” by Nathan Kleczewski, U of I Department of Crop Sciences

“The New Era of Herbicide Resistance… and You Thought the Last Era was Difficult” by Aaron Hager, U of I Department of Crop Sciences

“What’s the Real Deal with Cover Crops & Soybean Cyst Nematode?” by Chelsea Harbach, U of I Extension

Insect Management in Corn and Soybeans” by Nick Seiter, U of I Department of Crop Sciences

Hemp, What Have We Learned in 2019?” by Talon Becker (Mt. Vernon), Jessica Soule (Springfield), and Phillip Alberti (Malta, Champaign), U of I Extension

Certified crop advisers can earn up to eight hours of continuing education credit. Advance registration, no later than one week before each conference, is $100 per person. Late and on-site registration is $120. Register for the conferences online at https://go.aces.illinois.edu/IL2020CMC.

#illinois   #corn  #soybean  #wheat 

 

— University of Illinois Extension


Looking for Phyllachora samples on grasses- need your help!

Last year we started a project focusing on determining origins of Phyllachora maydis, the causal agent of tar spot of corn, in the United States.  As part of this project, we need to collect Phyllachora species from different hosts and areas.  Today I went for a lunchtime walk and was able to find Phyllachora spp. on four different grass hosts.  Note the large, somewhat raised stroma that follow the veins on most occasions.  They can have halos around them as well.  If you are walking fields, gardens, parks and happen to come across any putative Phyllachora, please send leaves and seed heads to the UIUC plant diagnostic clinic

Phyllachora stroma following the veins, which is somewhat typical for the genus.  N. Kleczewski

Phyllachora spp. on a senesced grass.  N. Kleczewski

Phyllachora spp. with halos around stroma.  N Kleczewski

at S-417 Turner Hall, 1102 S.Goodwin Ave. Urbana, IL 61801 ATTN Tar spot survey.  We really can use your help in this regard!

Nathan Kleczewski- Extension Plant Pathologist UIUC


Harvest time is not the time to determine if a disease affected your crop

It happens every year.

A field is about to be harvested and something is awry.  Perhaps the plants are lodged, ears are poorly filled, or pods shrunken.  What happened to my crop?

From a plant disease perspective, it is nearly impossible to provide any useful information to the producer.  Many pathogens that can cause crop diseases are also excellent saprophytes.  That means they utilize dead or dying plant tissues for nourishment.  Consequently, when plants prematurely senesce, these organisms see these plants the same way as I viewed Golden Corral in college- it’s chow time!  As a result, it is common to observe senesced plants in fields with multiple “pathogenic” organisms present in or on tissues.  For example, I recently read a report form the diagnostic clinic where four pathogenic organisms were detected in soybean stems.  Was it organism 1,2,3, or 4 that caused the disease?  All of them?  Was it something else related to the environment that killed the plant and all 4 moved in afterwards?  Therein lies the problem- when plants are dead there is no way to know what killed it.    The most important thing needed to properly manage a disease is a confidant identification of the pathogen and knowledge that it was the cause of reduced plant performance.

This is why it is so important to be checking fields throughout the season.  Assessing the health of the crop while most plants are still green allows you to understand if the issue is related to environment, disease, insects, or some other factor.  During the season, make a point to assess your fields at least 4-5 times throughout the season, from planting through maturity.  Look for plants that exhibit abnormal growth or symptoms.  Send samples to your state diagnostic clinic for assessment.  By doing this, you arm yourself with the information you will need to defend yourself from potential yield limiting diseases in subsequent years.

Don’t be that guy.  Don’t wait until it is dry.


Tips for small grain planting in an odd 2019 field season.

Soon many producers will be starting to plant small grains.  Below is my “Top six” list of important things to consider when planting wheat and other small grains in the coming weeks.

1) Ensure that you remove green bridges at least 10 days prior to planting.  This season, prevent plant acres may have favored the development of grassy weeds and other potential hosts of aphids that transmit barley yellow dwarf (BYDV) virus in small grains.  Aphids acquire BYDV upon feeding, and then can transmit it to susceptible hosts.  This group of viruses has a wide host range, and many grassy weeds, in addition to volunteer small grains, serve as a means for this virus to persist during the summer.  When aphids such as the Bird Cherry Oat aphid (and some others that feed on wheat)feed on these grassy hosts and a fresh field of wheat or barley is planted nearby, they can move into these fields and begin to transmit the virus early in the growing season.  Fall infections of BYDV in wheat and barley result in the greatest  potential yield loss in the following season.  To minimize BYDV, ensure that any weeds are killed 10 days prior to planting.  In addition, other obligate pathogens that require a living host to survive the winter, such as stripe rust, can be maintained on volunteer wheat and native grasses during the summer.  This is another reason to ensure to ensure weeds are burned down prior to planting.

2) Plant after the Hession fly free date.  Some think this insect is a myth, but it can appear on occasion.  However, planting after this date is one way to minimize the window of opportunity for diseases such as the aphid transmitted BYDV, stripe rust, and powdery mildew to impact diseases early in fall growth and establishment.  The earlier infections occur, the more likely you will see yield losses the following Spring.

3) Plant certified seed.  Several diseases can be transmitted on seed.  Minimize potential issues by purchasing high quality, disease free seed.

4) Ensure good soil to seed contact.  The faster your plants emerge from the ground, the less chance you will observe potential issues with seedling blights.

5) Plant after soybeans.  This season the potential opportunity to do this will be limited.  Fusarium graminearum, which causes Fusarium head blight (FHB), grows much less efficiently on soybean residue than corn residue.  Thus, planting behind soybeans can reduce the amount of local FHB inoculum in a field the following season.

6) Select varieties with the highest yield potential and best disease resistance packages for common yield limiting diseases.  Growers should focus on FHB resistance (click here for university ratings) then check leaf blotch ratings.  Other issues that are problematic for you on a local scale should also be considered.

 


RSVP for the Champaign Pest and Pathogen Field Day!

Come to Champaign, Illinois on July 22nd for the first annual field crop Pest and Pathogen Field Day from 9am-noon.  Registration, doughnuts, and coffee will start at 8:30 am. Parking for the event will be available at the Agricultural and Biological Engineering farm on the UIUC South Farm Facility, located at 3603 South Race Street, Urbana, IL, 61802.  Click HERE to register.

Join us to walk research plots and learn about insect and disease identification in field crops, current research on field crop entomology, nematode, and plant disease research, and discuss local and regional production issues with entomology and plant pathology experts from the University of Illinois Department of Crop Science.

Examples of some of topics that will be discussed:

Seed treatments for suppressing soil borne diseases of soybean and corn

Lesion nematodes in corn and soybean

Understanding HG types and resistance to soybean cyst nematode

Current research projects of tar spot on corn

Bacterial leaf streak of corn

Red crown rot in soybeans

Fungicides in crop production

Mycorrhizae in crop production

Corn root worm research

Defoliators in field crops

Thrips and Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus

Understanding residual control of insect pests

Cover crops and insects

and much more!

RSVP today- this is a free field day, bring sunscreen, a hat, and plenty of questions!