2015 Season at the University of Illinois Plant Clinic

What pests will the 2015 growing season feature? Let the Plant Clinic help you diagnose them. Samples havePreview been gradually filling up the lab here at the Clinic in our 40th year of operation. On the field front, there have been concerns with root and virus disease diagnosis in wheat. On the home landscape front, there has been a steady influx of fungal disease.

 
The University of Illinois Plant Clinic accepts samples year-round. We are located in the Jonathan Baldwin Turner Hall building on the south end of the Urbana campus. Plant Clinic services include plant and insect identification, diagnosis of disease, insect, weed and chemical injury observation (chemical injury on field crops only), nematode assays, herbicide resistance testing for glyphosate and PPO inhibitors in pigweed, and help with nutrient related problems, as well as management recommendations involving these diagnoses. Microscopic examinations, laboratory culturing, virus assays, and nematode assays are some of the techniques used in the clinic. Many samples can be diagnosed within a day or two. Should culturing be necessary, isolates may not be ready to make a final reading for as much as two weeks. Nematode processing also requires about 1-2 weeks depending on the procedure. We send your final diagnoses and invoices to you through both the US mail and email. If you provide your email address on the sample form you will get your information earlier.

 
Please refer to our website http://web.extension.illinois.edu/plantclinic/ for additional details on sampling, sample forms, fees and services offered. If you have questions about what, where, or how to sample call us at 217-333-0519, leave a voicemail if you can’t get through. Whenever submitting a sample, provide as much information as possible on the pattern of injury in the planting, the pattern on individual affected plants, and details describing how symptoms have changed over time to cause you concern.

Our fees vary depending on the procedure necessary. General diagnosis including culturing is $15, ELISA and immunostrip testing is $25, Nematode analysis for SCN or PWN is $20, Specialty Nematode testing (such as corn) is $40. Please include payment with the sample for diagnosis to be initiated. Checks should be made payable to the University of Illinois or to the Plant Clinic. Companies can setup an account, call and we will accommodate you. Call if uncertain of which test is needed.

Photo 1:

Photo 1:Example of a great sample: Sample form, symptomatic plant, protected root ball and payment

Sending a sample thru US mail or delivery service address to:
University of Illinois Plant Clinic
1102 S. Goodwin, S-417 Turner Hall
Urbana, IL 61801

Email: We have a new email address plantclinic@illinois.edu. Use this address to send .jpg pictures to accompany your samples or to contact a diagnostician.

Drop off a sample:
You can also drop off a sample at S-417 Turner Hall. Park in the metered lot F 28 on the east side of Turner Hall or at the ACES library metered lot on the west side of Turner. Come in the South door. Take the elevator located in the SE corner of the building. Turn left when exiting the elevator; we are located along the SE corridor of the 4th floor. Please use the green drop box located just outside S-417 if we are temporarily out of the office.

Plant Clinic location, S-417 Turner Hall, 1102 S. Goodwin, Urbana IL 61801

Photo 2: Plant Clinic location, S-417 Turner Hall, 1102 S. Goodwin, Urbana IL 61801

Suzanne Bissonnette


Wheat disease outlook

As the weather begins to warm up, wheat is beginning to grow at a faster pace.  Symptoms of some diseases also are beginning to appear or will likely be appearing soon.  Below are some diseases to look for right now.

Stagonospora and Septoria leaf blotch: Although caused by two different pathogens, symptoms of these two foliar diseases look very similar and both can be managed with an appropriate foliar fungicide application.  Most results from University of Illinois wheat foliar fungicide trials conducted since 2008 have shown that an application of an effective fungicide for control of Fusarium head blight (scab) when wheat is beginning to flower also provides good protection against common foliar fungal diseases on the flag leaf.  However, if a variety is very susceptible and if conditions are favorable (frequent rainfall / damp conditions), then an application of a fungicide when the flag leaf emerges may be needed.  On a side-note, the 2015 multi-state university foliar fungicide efficacy table for wheat diseases can be found here: NCERA 184 Wheat fungicide table 2015_V3.

Septoria leaf blotch symptoms on a wheat leaf. (Photo by C. Bradley)

Virus diseases: Surveys of viruses affecting wheat in Illinois conducted in recent years indicate that Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is the most commonly detected virus affecting wheat in the state.  However, other viruses, such as Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV), Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV), Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), and a few others also have been detected.  Virus symptoms (yellowing, purpling, yellow streaks, etc.) can be confused with other disorders, and it can be extremely difficult identifying a virus disease by symptoms alone.  Therefore, specific laboratory tests must be conducted to determine if a virus is responsible for these symptoms.  The University of Illinois Plant Clinic (https://web.extension.illinois.edu/plantclinic/) does not currently test for viruses in wheat, but can help make a determination if virus testing is needed.  Plant virus testing can be done at the Purdue University Plant & Pest Diagnostic Laboratory (http://www.ppdl.purdue.edu/ppdl/index.html) and at a private lab known as Agdia, which is located in Elkhart, IN (https://www.agdia.com/).  Unfortunately, no in-season control options are available for managing virus diseases.

Symptoms caused by Barley yellow dwarf virus on wheat. (Photo by C. Bradley)

Symptoms caused by Soilborne wheat mosaic virus on wheat. (Photo by C. Bradley)

Stripe rust: To my knowledge, stripe rust has not yet been detected in Illinois during the 2015 season.  However, there have been reports of stripe rust from states to the south of Illinois, such as Arkansas and Tennessee.  Since rust spores have the capability of moving many miles, stripe rust could be on its way to southern Illinois.  If stripe rust is observed on plants, a foliar fungicide may be needed to protect the flag leaf, depending on the susceptibility of the variety.  Applications at early flowering for control of Fusarium head blight also may be effective in managing stripe rust; however, an earlier application of a fungicide may be needed if stripe rust is found prior to heading and if disease is developing rapidly.

Early symptoms of stripe rust on a wheat leaf. (Photo by C. Bradley)

Orange-colored pustules of the stripe rust fungus on a wheat leaf. (Photo by C. Bradley)

Fusarium head blight (scab): Although it cannot be observed yet, Fusarium head blight is the most important wheat disease in Illinois, and thinking about how to manage this disease cannot occur too early.  In years in which weather is favorable for infection (frequent rains, moderate temperatures, and cloudy weather – such as 2014 for southern IL producers), this disease can wreak havoc.  This is especially true because the fungus that causes this disease also produces toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON; also known as “vomitoxin) that will contaminate grain and will result into major dockage when grain is delivered to the elevator.  Infection of the scab fungus occurs when wheat heads begin to flower.  The beginning flowering stage also is the best timing for applying an effective fungicide to managing Fusarium head blight and DON.  Results of university fungicide trials across multiple states have shown that Prosaro (Bayer CropScience) and Caramba (BASF) are the best products currently available for reducing Fusarium head blight and DON in grain.  One thing to keep in mind with these fungicides is that 100% control cannot be achieved, and susceptible varieties cannot be “fixed” by applying a fungicide when conditions are very favorable for Fusarium head blight.  University research has shown that Fusarium head blight and DON can be reduced by approximately 40%-60% with Prosaro or Caramba (relative to a non-treated check); therefore, the bottom line is that fungicides will reduce disease and DON levels in grain, but don’t expect a complete reduction with fungicides alone.  The forecasted risk of Fusarium head blight can be observed by going to the Fusarium head blight Prediction Center website (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/).

Fusarium head blight (scab) affecting a wheat field. (Photo by C. Bradley)


Spring Cover Crop Field Day March 26th – Ewing Demonstration Center

Join us on Thursday, March 26th, 2015 for the  Spring Cover Crop Field Day at the University of Illinois Extension Ewing Demonstration Center.  Registration will start at 8:30 a.m. and the program will begin at 9:00 a.m., rain or shine.  The Ewing Demonstration Center is located at 16132 N. Ewing Rd; Ewing, IL 62836, on the north edge of the village of Ewing, north of the Ewing Grade School on north Ewing Road.  Watch for signs.

Cover crops have many benefits to the soil, environment, and overall crop production and management.  Topics covered during this field day program include:

Challenges of Grazing Lush Spring Forage

–          Travis Meteer, Extension Educator, U of I Extension

Techniques for Planting into Cover Crop Residue

–          Mike Plumer, Private Consultant

Understanding the Soil Profile Beneath Your Feet

–          Bryan Fitch, Resource Soil Scientist, NRCS

Which One to Choose? Cover Crop Species Selection and Demonstration Trial Tour

–          Nathan Johanning, Extension Educator, U of I Extension

Some of the program highlights will be the demonstration trial planting of cover crops, including 17 different cover crops and combinations illustrating first hand the characteristics of the cover crops and what benefits they bring to your soil and crop production system.  Also, (weather and soil conditions permitting) we will have a soil pit dug, exposing the soil profile, where NRCS Resource Soil Scientist, Bryan Fitch will lead us through the characteristics of our southern Illinois soils to enhance understanding of the importance of a healthy soil.  Also Certified Crop Advisor CEU credits will be available (2.0 Soil & Water Management & 1.0 Crop Management) for the program.

This field day will be free and open to anyone interested in learning more about cover crops.  A light lunch will be provided and this is a great way to talk to fellow growers to learn more from their challenges and successes incorporating cover crops into their cropping systems.  Please call the Franklin County Extension Office at 618-439-3178 for more information and to register by March 24th.  We hope to see you there!


Ewing Demonstration Center Fall Cover Crop Field Day – Nov. 6th

Join us on Thursday, November 6th, 2014 for the the Ewing Demonstration Center Fall Cover Crop Field Day.  Registration and refreshments will start at 8:30 a.m. and the program will start at 9:00 a.m., rain or shine.  The Ewing Demonstration Center is located at 16132 N. Ewing Rd; Ewing IL 62836, on the north edge of the village of Ewing, north of the Ewing Grade School on north Ewing Road.  Watch for signs.

Cover crops have many benefits to the soil, environment, and overall crop production and management.  Topics included in this field day program are:

Establishment Challenges and Successes

– Robert Bellm, Extension Educator, University of Illinois Extension

Calibrating Success:  Drill and Planting Calibration

– Marc Lamczyk, Program Coordinator, University of Illinois Extension

Which One to Choose? Cover Crop Species Selection and Demonstration Trial Tour

– Nathan Johanning, Extension Educator, University of Illinois Extension

In addition, we also have a demonstration planting of cover crops established late this summer so you can view the growth and characteristics of the cover crops first hand and learn more what benefits they bring to your soil and crop production system.

This field day will be free and open to anyone interested in learning more about cover crops.  Please call the Franklin County Extension Office at 618-439-3178 for more information and to register.  We hope to see you there!


Destructive diseases of soybean – sudden death syndrome and white mold – observed in the state

Signs and symptoms of a few soybean diseases have begun to show up in the last few weeks in some areas of the state.  Two of these diseases, sudden death syndrome (SDS) and Sclerotinia stem rot (a.k.a. white mold) certainly are going to cause economic losses in some growers’ fields this year.

Symptoms of SDS that currently are being observed are interveinal chlorosis and necrosis of the leaves (veins remain green while the tissues between the veins turn yellow and then brown).  These symptoms look exactly like the foliar symptoms caused by a different disease, brown stem rot.  Brown stem rot, however, will cause internal browning of the pith in soybean stems, while SDS does not affect soybean stems.  On SDS-affected plants, the leaves will fall off eventually, while the petioles will remain attached to the stems and branches.  In some cases, a bluish-white mass of spores of the SDS fungus (Fusarium virguliforme) may be observed on the roots.  Although the foliar symptoms of SDS are now being observed, infection by the SDS fungus occurred during the seedling stage, not long after planting.  The symptoms that are now being observed are the effect of toxins that the SDS pathogen produces that are phytotoxic.  Cool and wet weather after planting and the recent rainfall received in parts of the state were favorable for infection and disease development, and are the reasons why SDS incidence is high in some areas this year.  The primary method of managing SDS is to choose the most resistant soybean varieties available.  Some evidence has shown that high soybean cyst nematode (SCN) egg populations may also increase the likelihood of severe SDS; therefore, managing SCN populations through resistant varieties and crop rotation may also reduce the risk of SDS.  Unfortunately, there currently are no fungicide products registered that are effective in managing SDS, but an experimental fungicide seed treatment known as “ILeVO” that is currently making its way through the EPA registration process has shown efficacy against SDS in University of Illinois field trials.

Symptoms of sudden death syndrome of soybean (Photo by C. Bradley).

 

A bluish-white mass of spores of the SDS fungus (Fusarium virguliforme) on a soybean root (Photo by C. Bradley).

 

White mold can be observed in fields located in the northern half of Illinois this year.  The appearance of this disease also is weather-related.  Areas in the northern half of the state, that were cooler and wetter than normal after soybean plants began to flower, are the areas that are affected the most severely.  Unfortunately, once white mold signs and symptoms are detected in the field, fungicide applications generally will be futile, as the damage has already been done.  Management of white mold was discussed in an earlier article of the Bulletin this year (http://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/?p=2412).  Growers with severe levels of white mold may encounter some discounts at the elevator this year for high levels of foreign matter.  Some sclerotia (dark survival structures produced by the white mold fungus – Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) that are formed on plants may similar in size to the seed, and will make their way to the hopper and eventually the elevator, where discounts may be received.

 

Soybean plants dying prematurely because of white mold in a field in Champaign County (Photo by K. Ames).

 

White mycelia of the white mold fungus (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) on a soybean plant (Photo by C. Bradley).


2014 Ewing Demonstration Center Fall Field Day

2014 Ewing Demonstration Center Fall Field Day

The University of Illinois Extension will host its annual Ewing Demonstration Center Fall Field Day on Thursday, September 11, 2014 at 9 a.m.  The Ewing Demonstration Center at is located at 16132 N. Ewing Rd; Ewing IL 62836, on the north edge of the village of Ewing, north of the Ewing Grade School on north Ewing Road.  Watch for signs.

The ongoing research plots this year consist of a soybean cover crops trial, LibertyLink soybean variety trial, insecticide/fungicide trial on soybeans, corn population study, drought tolerant corn hybrid evaluation, and new this year a pumpkin variety trial.

 

The topics to be discussed at Field Day include:

Fusarium Head Blight (Scab) and Vomitoxin Management in Wheat

  • Carl Bradley, Extension Specialist, Plant Pathology, University of Illinois Extension

Sky High Crop Scouting; Unmanned Aerial Drones

  • Dennis Bowman, Extension Educator, University of Illinois Extension

Alternative Forages and Harvesting Methods

  • Teresa Steckler, Extension Educator, Commercial Ag, University of Illinois Extension

Palmer Amaranth: Coming (Soon) to a Field Near You

  • Robert Bellm, Extension Educator, Commercial Ag, University of Illinois Extension

Cover Crops and Weed Management

  • Nathan Johanning, Extension Educator, Small Farms Local Foods, University of Illinois Extension

Refreshments will be provided by Franklin County Farm Bureau.

The field day is free and open to anyone interested.  A light lunch will be provided and registration is recommended by September 8, 2014 for an accurate meal count.

For additional information or to register, contact Marc Lamczyk at University of Illinois Extension Office in Franklin County at 618-439-3178 or lamczyk@illinois.edu.

 


2014 Field Day August 7 at Dixon Springs Ag Center

The 2014 Dixon Springs Agronomy and Horticulture Field Day presented by the University of Illinois, Department of Crop Sciences will be held on Thursday, August 7 at the Dixon Springs Ag Center.  The research center is located on IL Route 145, near Glendale, IL, 25 miles south of Harrisburg and 25 miles north of Paducah, KY.

Tours will start at 9:00 AM with the final bus leaving at 9:30. A lunch to follow will be provided by sponsors and UI Extension.

The following presenters will speak about current conditions and management challenges in field crop and horticulture production.

  • Carl Bradley: Fungicide Resistance
  • Angie Peltier: Corn Nematodes, The Hidden Menace in Your Fields
  • Jake Vossenkemper: Nitrogen on Soybeans
  • Rachel Cook: Tillage is Recreational, Fertilizer is Essential: A 44 Year Study
  • Jeff Kindhart: High Tunnels, Hydroponics and Mushrooms

For more information contact John Pike at 618-695-2441 or by email at jpike@illinois.edu


Brownstown Agronomy Research Center Field Day – August 6

The 2014 Brownstown Agronomy Research Center Field Day, presented by the University Of Illinois Department Of Crop Sciences, will be held on Wednesday, August 6. Extension researchers and specialists will address issues pertinent to the current growing season. The tour will start at 8 a.m. and will last about two and a half hours. It will be followed by lunch provided by U of I Extension.

Shaded tour wagons will take participants to each stop. These topics will be addressed:

  • N Fertilizer for Soybean:  Where’s the Yield? – Jake Vossenkemper, U of I
  • Tillage is Recreational, Fertilizer is Essential – Dr. Rachel Cook, SIU
  • Field Crop Diseases & Fungicide Treatments – Dr. Carl Bradley, U of I
  • Corn Nematodes:  the Hidden Menace in Your Fields – Dr. Angie Peltier, U of I
  • Factors Contributing to a Healthy Soil – Troy Fehrenbacher, NRCS

The 208-acre Brownstown Agronomy Research Center has been conducting crop research on the claypan soils of southern Illinois since 1937. More than 30 research and demonstration projects are conducted at the Center every year. Visitors are always welcome.

The research center is located south of Brownstown on IL Route 185, approximately 4 miles east of the IL Route 40 / 185 junction.

For more information, contact Robert Bellm (618-427-3349); rcbellm@illinois.edu
Visit us on the web at http://web.extension.illinois.edu/barc/


Assessing the risk of white mold (Sclerotinia stem rot) of soybean in 2014

White mold of soybean (a.k.a. Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a disease that can occur in the northern half of the state in cool, wet years.  The most recent, widespread white mold epidemic in Illinois occurred during the 2009 season, where several fields in the northern half of the state were affected.  In some of the northern-most areas of Illinois, white mold can be considered a more consistent problem.

The white mold fungus overwinters in the soil as, small, black, and dense structures known as sclerotia.  These sclerotia germinate and form mushroom-like structures known as apothecia when soil remains moist for several consecutive days and soil temperatures are at 60 degrees F or below.  These apothecia generally will not form until the soil is shaded from sunlight due to soybean canopy closure.  Spores of the white mold fungus are shot out of the apothecia and land on senescing flower petals, where infections first occur on the soybean plants.  The white mold fungus becomes inactive when temperatures within the soybean canopy are above approximately 82 degrees, so infection and disease development may cease or slow down during periods of hot (above 82 degrees) and dry weather.

Apothecia of the white mold fungus germinating from a sclerotium. Image courtesy J. Venette, North Dakota State University.

 

Soybean plant with symptoms and signs of white mold (a.k.a. Sclerotinia stem rot). Image by C. Bradley.

 

So, what does the risk of white mold look like for 2014?  This is not an easy question to answer.  In general, rainfall has been consistent in the northern portion of the state, which would favor white mold, but recent temperatures in the 80s and 90s have not been favorable.  However, the short-term weather forecast shows cooler temperatures (60s and 70s).  If a cool and wet trend continues throughout soybean flowering, then the risk of white mold will be elevated.

In University of Illinois research trials, some fungicide products have shown efficacy against white mold.  Foliar fungicides will not provide complete control of the disease, but may reduce disease.  The results of University of Illinois trials conducted in 2009, 2010, and 2013 are shown in Tables 1-3.  Note that some of the more popular, frequently marketed fungicides are not listed in the tables since many do not have white mold on their label because of no to poor efficacy.  In these trials, the primary targeted growth stage to apply foliar fungicides was at R1 (beginning flower).  In some cases, R1 may occur before canopy closure.  If this is the case, then an application at canopy closure (rather than R1) might be more effective in protecting against white mold.  Also note that some treatments in these research trials were applied twice during the season.

 

Table 1. Results of soybean foliar fungicide research trials focused on white mold conducted in 2009 at the University of Illinois Northern Agronomy Research Center (DeKalb County).

Treatment Rate/A Incidence (%) 

8-11-09

Incidence (%) 

9-14-09

Yield (bu/A)
Untreated check 75 95 24
Topsin 4.5 L 20 fl oz 43 96 24
Proline 3 fl oz 38 95 24
Domark 5 fl oz 68 98 23
Cobra herbicide 12.5 fl oz 15 51 42
Omega 1 pt 23 80 34
Endura (2x)* 8 oz 38 86 39
Aproach (2x)* 8 fl oz 35 80 40
LSD 0.05** 33 15 8

*All treatments were applied at the R1 growth stage (July 20, 2009).  Treatments followed by “(2x)” were applied again 9 days later.

**Least significant difference (alpha level = 0.05).  Treatment values that differ by this number can be considered significantly differ from one another.

 

Table 2. Results of soybean foliar fungicide research trials focused on white mold conducted in 2010 at the University of Illinois Northern Agronomy Research Center (DeKalb County).  Funded in part by the Illinois Soybean Association.

Treatment Rate/A Incidence (%) 

8-11-09

Incidence (%) 

9-14-09

Yield (bu/A)
Untreated check 18 95 62
Topsin 4.5 L 20 fl oz 9 83 61
Proline 3 fl oz 10 89 66
Domark 5 fl oz 7 76 63
Cobra herbicide 6 fl oz 6 86 56
Omega 1 pt 2 70 58
Endura 8 oz 4 79 69
Aproach (2x)* 8 fl oz 11 79 66
LSD 0.05** 11 NS 8

*All treatments were applied at the R1 growth stage (July 10, 2010).  Treatments followed by “(2x)” were applied again 7 days later.

**Least significant difference (alpha level = 0.05).  Treatment values that differ by this number can be considered significantly differ from one another.  “NS” indicates that no treatments were significantly different from each other.

 

Table 3. Results of soybean foliar fungicide research trials focused on white mold conducted in 2013 at the University of Illinois Northern Agronomy Research Center (DeKalb County). Treatments were applied at the R1 growth stage unless indicated otherwise.

Treatment Rate/A Incidence (%) 

9-19-13

Yield (bu/A)
Untreated check 33 53
Incognito 4.5F 20 fl oz 20 68
Incognito 4.5F + Orius 3.6F* 20 fl oz + 4 fl oz 0 62
Proline + Stratego YLD** 3 fl oz + 4.65 fl oz 3 58
Domark 5 fl oz 3 62
Cobra herbicide 6 fl oz 25 52
Endura 8 oz 3 64
Aproach 8 fl oz 13 61
Fortix 5 fl oz 15 56
LSD 0.05*** 22 7

*Incognito was applied alone at the R1 growth stage and was followed by Orius applied alone at R3.

**Proline was applied alone at the R1 growth stage, and was followed by Stratego YLD applied alone at R3.

***Least significant difference (alpha level = 0.05).  Treatment values that differ by this number can be considered significantly differ from one another.  “NS” indicates that no treatments were significantly different from each other.

Overall, the highest level of white mold control will be achieved when several management practices are integrated (i.e. choosing the most-resistant varieties, utilizing recommended seeding rates, applying a foliar fungicide, and applying a biocontrol product).  For more information about white mold and management of this disease, go to http://www.soybeanresearchinfo.com/pdf_docs/WhiteMold_NCSRP.pdf, where a 7-page publication on white mold (developed in 2011) can be downloaded.


Wheat scab rearing its ugly “head” again in 2014

Head scab of wheat (a.k.a. Fusarium head blight) is showing up in the southern portion of Illinois.  In many cases, incidence is moderate to high (over 50% of the heads affected).  Affected wheat heads will appear “bleached” in color.  Heads often are partially affected, with both healthy green and affected bleached areas being present in the same head.  Although I have not been in all wheat production areas in the state, my general observations are that fields in southern Illinois (south of Interstate 70) range from a moderate to high incidence of scab.  The differences in scab incidence from field to field likely are due to differences in susceptibility of the varieties planted, application or no application of fungicides, and local weather.

Wheat field affected by head scab (Fusarium head blight). Note the "bleached" heads. (Photo by Carl Bradley)

Wheat growers may want to evaluate the level of scab in their fields.  It is easiest to observe this disease before heads completely mature.  Growers with moderate to high levels of scab should consider making adjustments to their combine that would allow low test-weight, scabby kernels to be blown out the back of the combine.  Recent research conducted at the Ohio State University indicated that adjusting the combine’s fan speed between 1,375 and 1,475 rpms and shutter opening to 90 mm (3.5 inches) resulted in the lowest discounts that would have been received at the elevator due to low test weight, % damaged kernels, and level of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON; vomitoxin) present in the harvested grain (Salgado et al., 2011).

 

Wheat head affected by scab (Fusarium head blight). (Photo by Carl Bradley)

Reference:

Salgado, J. D., Wallhead, M., Madden, L. V., and Paul, P. A. 2011. Grain harvesting strategies to minimize grain quality losses due to Fusarium head blight in wheat. Plant Disease 95:1448-1457.