Cooperators Sought for Insect Trapping Network

Despite the snow falling outside of my window this morning, plans continue for the upcoming survey season. Mother Nature has hinted at spring with temperatures in the 70’s just last week and its time to start thinking about spring insect trapping.

We are starting to look for cooperators that are willing to place and monitor traps for black cutworm and true armyworm this spring and European corn borer, corn earworm, fall armyworm, and western bean cutworm this summer. We provide traps and lures. We ask cooperators to place and check traps several times a week, reporting trap catches to our site.

We will also be looking for cooperators to participate in our summer field surveys as well. This survey is done entirely by the Illinois Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey Program. Each year, we have conducted a corn and soybean survey, but will also be adding an invasive species component this year. As part of our CAPS program, there are several invasive corn and soybean pests that are a threat. Included in that list are the old world bollworm, Egyptian cottonworm, , cucurbit beetle, brown marmorated stink bug, and kudzu bug in addition to western corn rootworm, soybean defoliators, and other pests. Tar spot of corn and bacterial leaf streak of corn will also be surveyed for.

If you are interested in participating in either of these programs, please use the link below.

https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/C6Q9JGM


Extension Bi-State Crops Conferences in and near Western Illinois

Newer and longer-term partnerships between personnel in Illinois and personnel in Missouri and Iowa have resulted in several bi-state crops conferences to be held during January 2017 in Western Illinois or Eastern Iowa.

 

Friday, January 6, 2017: Bi-State Crop Advantage Conference, Burlington, IA, 8:30 AM – 4:00 PM

Location: Comfort Suites, 1708 Stonegate Center Drive, Burlington, IA.

Hosts: Iowa State University and University of Illinois Extension

More Information: Click here to access the flier.

Online Registration: Click here to register

 

Friday, January 27, 2017: Bi-State Crop Advantage Conference, Davenport, IA, 8:30 AM – 4:00 PM

Location: Rhythm City Casino Resort, 7077 Elmore Ave., Davenport, IA

Hosts: Iowa State University and University of Illinois Extension

More Information: Click here to access the flier.

Online Registration: Click here to register.

 

Friday, January 27, 2017: Western Illinois-Northeastern Missouri No-till Crop Management Conference, Quincy, IL, 8:45 AM – 2:00 PM

Location: John Wood Community College, 1301 S. 48th St., Quincy, IL

Hosts: University of Illinois and University of Missouri Extension, Illinois and Missouri NRCS

More Information: Click here to access the flier.

Online Registration: Click here to register.


2016 SDS Commercial Variety Test Results Available

SDS Variety Report

This past growing season personnel from Southern Illinois University, Iowa State University and University of Illinois evaluated more than 580 soybean varieties from 22 seed companies in USB-sponsored sudden death syndrome (SDS) variety trials. The varieties that were evaluated ranged from the very early (MG 0) to late (MG V) maturity groups. Maturity groups were divided into early and late categories; for example, MG II was split into early (2.0 to 2.4) and late (2.5 to 2.9) categories in order to more easily monitor crop development and assess disease at the appropriate growth stage (Figure).

Figure. Aerial picture of the 2016 Commercial SDS Variety Trial at the Northwestern Illinois Ag R&D Center in Monmouth. The difference in variety maturity is evident in this picture. Moving left to right are varieties in Early MG II, Late MG II, Early MG III and Late MG III.

Figure. Aerial picture of the 2016 Commercial SDS Variety Trial at the Northwestern Illinois Ag R&D Center in Monmouth. The difference in variety maturity is evident in this picture. Moving left to right are varieties in Early MG II, Late MG II, Early MG III and Late MG III.

At one or more locations in Illinois and/or Iowa each variety within a maturity group category was randomly assigned to a two-row plot within a block (replication); each variety was planted in three replications. Production of the crop within these trials followed university Extension recommendations and was similar to soybeans produced in any Midwestern farm field with a couple of exceptions: 1) to provide a disease-favorable environment irrigation water (where available) supplemented rainfall, and 2) to increase the chance that germinating seedlings would be exposed to the pathogen, at planting time sorghum seed infested with Fusarium virguliforme, the fungus that causes SDS, was placed in-furrow.

Plots were monitored throughout the growing season for growth and development. At the R6 or full seed growth stage, disease incidence and severity ratings were collected for each plot. In each maturity group category, varieties known to have high levels of SDS resistance or susceptibility were included as ‘checks’. Sufficient disease in the susceptible check varieties was required in order for data from a particular trial to be included in the final report.

The final report is available for download here.

While the data may be of use to crop producers to use as a reference when making their 2017 seed selections or for crop advisors or seed company representatives to use when advising their clients, the final report is forthcoming with its limitations:

“Data presented here is from a single year at one or two locations. Varieties may perform differently in other environments.”

“Plots were not harvested for yield in this program because yield comparisons can be misleading from disease nurseries utilizing small plots. Accurate yield data for commercial varieties should be obtained from state variety trials.”


Soybean Rust found in Southern Illinois 2016

Soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) has been found in southern Illinois.  Samples were collected in Williamson county on 9/11/16 to make observations for other fungal foliar leaf disease. Soybean rust was found sporulating in pustules on the bottom surface of the leaves.  The field was at R6 so yield loss to that field is unlikely.  While this very late in the season,  there are still many fields in southern Illinois that are  green and producers should consider scouting for soybean rust.

Bradley 2016

Picture 1: Soybean rust pustule sporulating. Photo courtesy of Carl Bradley, University of Kentucky Extension Plant Pathologist.

The IPM PIPE website shows soybean rust observations in North America (http://sbr.ipmpipe.org). Soybean rust sentinel plots and monitoring programs are no longer active in Illinois.  Any soybean leaves that are suspicious for soybean rust however, can be sent to the University of Illinois Plant Clinic (http://web.extension.illinois.edu/plantclinic/) for diagnosis. Further information on soybean rust can be found from this 2013 article http://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/?p=1501


2016 Tar Spot again found on corn in Northern Illinois

Corn leaf samples from LaSalle county have been positively identified by the University of Illinois Plant Clinic to be infected with Tar Spot Phyllachora maydis.  Commercial Agriculture Extension Educator Russ Higgins found the disease while field scouting.  The fungal leaf blight was identified in numerous northern Illinois and northern Indiana counties in 2015.

Tar Spot has distinctive signs and symptoms. The fungal fruiting body, called an ascomata, looks like an actual spot of tar on the leaf.  Lesions are black, oval to circular.  They can be small flecks of about 1/64” up to about 5/64”.   The lesions can merge together to produce an affected area up to 3/8”.  If you run your finger across the leaf you will feel tiny bumps.

Picture 1. Distinctive black fruiting bodies of Tar Spot on corn leaf 2016. Photo courtesy of Russ Higgins, University of Illinois Extension

Prior to 2015, Tar Spot was known to occur only in cool humid areas at high elevations in Latin America.  Tar Spot can form a complex with another fungus. The 2 fungi that cause ‘Tar Spot disease complex’ on corn are  Phyllachora maydis and Monographella maydisWhen  Monographella maydis is in association with  Phyllachora maydis  the complex has been demonstrated to cause economic yield losses in Latin America. Phyllachora maydis alone is not known to significantly reduce yield.  When the two are in combination a distinctive symptom is seen.  The black Tar Spot will be surrounded by a tan lesion so the two together resemble a ‘fish-eye’.

Other pathogens may be confused with Tar Spot, especially the overwintering teliospore (black) phase of corn rust.  Also, there are many fungi, called saprophytes that feed on dead corn tissue and form black splotches on the leaves.

To date only one of the pathogens, Phyllachora maydis, has been found in IL in 2015 and 2016, and IN in 2015.  If you suspect Tar Spot please submit a sample to The University of Illinois Plant Clinic.  We are cooperating with USDA-APHIS-CAPS to get a comprehensive idea of distribution in the state.  Illinois producers can participate at no cost, see how at this link https://uofi.box.com/s/bizu6oz3re35v9boif784nz4zvy85gjc

 


New bacterial leaf disease “Bacterial leaf streak” identified in one northern Illinois County

Extension Staff Join with other Agencies to Survey Illinois for New Corn Disease 2016: The USDA just announced the presence of Bacterial leaf streak in corn, as determined by recent surveys of the Corn Belt states.  In Illinois, a cooperative survey was organized with APHIS-PPQ (Animal Plant Health Inspection Service), IDA (Illinois Department of Agriculture), CAPS (Illinois Natural History Survey’s Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey) and University of Illinois Extension to provide a rapid response to determine distribution.

In a short time window, our surveyors examined randomly selected fields in transects across 68 of Illinois’s 102 counties. They looked for Bacterial leaf streak symptoms in approximately 340 fields across the state.  Leaves with suspicious symptoms were collected and have been sent to a USDA laboratory for evaluation.  The Extension surveyors consisted of volunteers from the Commercial Agriculture, Small Farms and Local Foods and the Energy and Environment teams.

One positive sample of Bacterial leaf streak was found in DeKalb County, IL and identification was verified by the USDA yesterday.  This is the only county in Illinois that has been verified to have the disease.  So far, Bacterial leaf streak has been identified in 9 states:  Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas, figure 1.

Figure1: Illinois surveyed counties for Bacterial leaf streak 2016

Bacterial leaf streak is caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum. The disease causes the formation of linear lesions between the veins on a corn leaf. The lesions look similar to gray leaf spot (GLS) symptoms. GLS lesions tend to be shorter, more rectangular and stay within their veinal borders. Bacterial leaf streak lesions are more irregular, often thinner and longer,  will “bleed” over the veinal border and may have a halo when held up to the light.

Xanthomonas1

Picture 1. Foliar symptoms of Bacterial leaf streak showing long lesions with wavy margins and halo visible with back-lighting. Photo courtesy of Nicole E. Furlan USDA-APHIS-PPQ

In many Great Plains states that have found the disease, symptoms first appear on the lower leaves and infection progresses up the plant. Typically these fields have been under pivot irrigation.  However later infections may occur and show up primarily in the upper canopy, as was the case for the positive DeKalb county sample.  There is currently very little known about this disease. Further research is needed to develop a complete understanding of this disease, its impact and strategies for long term management.  However, APHIS notes it is not believed to present a health risk to people or animals.

Picture 2: Late foliar symptoms of Bacterial leaf streak showing long lesions.  Photo courtesy of Scott Schirmer Illinois Department of Agriculture, State Plant Regulatory Official.

Picture 2: Late foliar symptoms of Bacterial leaf streak showing long lesions. Photo courtesy of Scott Schirmer Illinois Department of Agriculture, State Plant Regulatory Official.

Since this is a bacterial disease, fungicides cannot be expected to control or suppress this disease. Crop rotation and tillage are the best short-term management strategies if the disease is present in a field.  Differences in varietal susceptibility may point the way to sources of resistance.

If you suspect Bacterial leaf streak, submit a sample to the University of Illinois Plant Clinic http://web.extension.illinois.edu/plantclinic/ We would like to get a comprehensive idea of distribution in the state. For more information on Bacterial leaf streak,  biology, symptoms, or management, please visit: http://cropwatch.unl.edu/bacterial-leaf-streak from University of Illinois alumna Dr.Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Nebraska Extension Plant Pathologist, and http://broderslab.agsci.colostate.edu/corn-bacterial-leaf-streak/.

Authors: N. Dennis Bowman and Suzanne Bissonnette


University of Illinois Plant Clinic: Celebrating 40 Years of Service to Illinois

Anniversary Overview of Plant Clinic: Welcome to another year of service at the Plant Clinic! Since 1976, the University of Illinois Extension Plant Clinic has served as a clearinghouse for plant problems. Housed first in the Department of Plant Pathology and now Crop Sciences, the Plant Clinic was originally developed to help County Cooperative Extension staff and campus-based Extension specialists with requests for diagnoses on a wide variety of plants. By acting as a centralized diagnostic laboratory, the Plant Clinic  serves as a source of information about plant problems in Illinois.  While our primary mission is to provide diagnostic service to Illinois,  the Clinic maintains permits to receive plant, pest, and soil samples from the continental US and territories.

For most of its existence, the Plant Clinic was open from May through October. In 2010, we began year round operation.  During the off-season diagnostic staff write grants, compile reports, write fact sheets, and present at conferences and meetings around the state to support the outreach mission.  Our Nematology diagnostic clinic staff process samples and bioassays year round. The Plant Clinic has taken a lead role in the Illinois First Detector Invasive Species Workshops which started in 2013, as a part of our NIFA CPPM-EIP grant that supports IPM and diagnostics outreach. The workshops are held every year in various locations across Illinois and educate green professionals, city and municipal employees, and concerned public about invasive plants, insects, and diseases that threaten Illinois horticulture and agriculture.

U of I Plant Clinic Diagnostic Lab

U of I Plant Clinic Diagnostic Lab

For the past several years, the Plant Clinic has processed over 4,000 plant and soil samples annually. The vast majority of the plant samples are analyzed for disease and insect problems, though plant and insect identification is also performed. The soil samples are analyzed for nematode populations, including Soybean Cyst Nematode and vermiform pathogenic nematodes. Last year a new service testing for herbicide resistance in waterhemp was offered. Protocols for molecular testing for glyphosate and PPO-inhibitor resistance were adapted from ones developed in Dr. Tranel’s laboratory at the University of Illinois, 338 fields (representing 1350 plants) were analyzed. Plants were submitted from Illinois and 4 other Midwestern states.

The Plant Clinic works with the National Plant Diagnostic Network, Illinois Department of Agriculture and the National Sentinel Plant Network to stay aware of new threats in Illinois. Last year we found several new pests in Illinois, including jumping worms (an invasive earthworm) in northern Illinois, and tar spot of corn in north/central Illinois (this disease was found in Illinois and Indiana in 2015 and was a first find in the country). The Plant Clinic also works with the Illinois Department of Agriculture and Illinois Crop Improvement Association to certify diseases present crops for export, and has a partnership with the Illinois Department of Natural Resources to monitor the health of natural areas in Illinois.

The Plant Clinic employs undergraduate and graduate students, providing them with hands-on experience working in a plant diagnostic laboratory and expanding their outreach skills. Staff write articles for various online newsletters, including the Home, Yard, and Garden Pest Newsletter (http://hyg.ipm.illinois.edu/) and The Bulletin (http://bulletin.ipm.illinois.edu/). The Plant Clinic participated in the ACES Family Academies in 2015, where youth ages 6-13 got a chance to use microscopes, inoculate plants, and wash soil to collect nematode eggs. Departmental service includes opening the laboratory for tours and hands-on activities for students, and outreach at events such as Agronomy Day held every August.

Sample Information for the 2016  Season: Plant Clinic services include plant and insect identification, diagnosis of disease, insect, weed, and chemical injury problems (chemical injury on field crops only), nematode assays, herbicide resistance testing of waterhemp to PPO and glypohsate, and help with nutrient related problems, as well as recommendations involving these diagnoses. Microscopic examinations, laboratory culturing, virus assays, qPCR, ELISA and nematode assays are some of the techniques used at the Plant Clinic. Many samples can be diagnosed within a few days. Should culturing be necessary, isolates may not be ready to make a final reading for 10-14 days. Standard nematode processing also requires 1-2 weeks depending on the procedure. Some nematode bio-assays can take up to 4 months. We send your final diagnosis and invoice to you through both the US mail and email.

Please refer to our website at http://web.extension.illinois.edu/plantclinic/ for additional details on samples, sample forms, fees, and services offered. If you have questions about what, where, when, or how to sample call us at 217-333-0519. When submitting a sample, please provide as much information as possible on the pattern of injury in the planting, the pattern on individual affected plants, and details describing how symptoms have changed over time to cause you concern. Pictures of the affected plants or areas can also be sent with the sample to give us a better idea of what is occurring in the environment.

Our fees vary depending on the procedure necessary. General diagnosis including culturing is $15, ELISA and other serological testing is $25, nematode analysis for SCN or PWN is $20, specialty nematode testing (such as corn) is $40. Call ahead for other specialty nematode testing or bio-assays. Checks should be made payable to the University of Illinois Plant Clinic. Please contact us if you are uncertain of which test is needed.

For more information about the Plant Clinic, including how to contact us and submit a sample, please see our website at: http://web.extension.illinois.edu/plantclinic/. We are celebrating 40 years of service to the state of Illinois all season long on our Facebook page (https://www.facebook.com/UofIPlantClinic/) and are looking forward to another 40 years of helping people with their plant problems!  authors Suzanne Bissonnette and Diane Plewa


Another CORN DISEASE ALERT: New Bacterial leaf disease ‘Bacterial Stripe’ (Burkholderia andropogonis) of Corn identified in Illinois

Symptomatic corn leaf samples from Champaign County, Illinois have been confirmed positive for the bacterium Burkholderia andropogonis (Pseudomonas adropogonis (Smith) Stapp.) the causal agent of Bacterial Stripe disease by the University of Illinois Plant Clinic. This has been reported to the Illinois Department of Agriculture and the USDA. The pathogen was identified by symptomology, bacterial colony characteristics and  16S DNA sequencing.

Bacterial stripe foliar symptoms unfortunately are similar to other endemic bacterial leaf pathogens of corn, such as Goss’s Wilt and Stewart’s Wilt. Lesions appear initially as lime-green to yellow diffuse discoloration running parallel with leaf veins. As the lesion matures brown necrotic streaking is evident in the center of the lesion, lesions may be 2-5 inches or more in length.

Lesion symptoms of Bacterial leaf stripe on corn in Illinois. Photo credit: University of Illinois Plant Clinic

 

This is a new disease to corn in Illinois. There is little current or historical information available on impact to corn yields by this pathogen in the US. The bacterium is widely prevalent and infects a large number of plants including, Johnson grass, sorghum, rye and clover to name a few. It is reported that the disease becomes more severe during period of wet humid weather. Vidaver and Carlson of the University of Nebraska reported in 1978, that the disease was observed in 1973-1975 in South Dakota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Michigan. Conclusions were that the disease caused no economic impact at the time.

Lesion symptoms of Bacterial leaf stripe on corn in Illinois. Photo credit: University of Illinois Plant Clinic

Advanced lesion symptoms of Bacterial leaf stripe on corn in Illinois. Photo credit: University of Illinois Plant Clinic

Be on the outlook for this disease in corn next season. Be aware that symptoms of this disease may be confused with other bacterial leaf blights so lab testing may be necessary to differentiate.


CORN DISEASE ALERT: New Fungal Leaf disease “Tar spot” Phyllachora maydis identified in 3 northern Illinois counties

Tar spot confirmed:  Announced by the Illinois Department of Agriculture today. Corn leaf samples from 3 northern Illinois counties have been confirmed positive for the fungus Phyllachora maydis by Megan Romby National Plant Pathologist with the USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service in Beltsville, MD. Positive counties in Illinois are LaSalle, DeKalb and Bureau. The samples were collected from commercial fields by Monsanto breeders and pathologists and sent to Dr. Kiersten Wise in response to her inquiry for samples and distribution information of the Tar spot pathogen. Dr. Wise and Purdue Plant Clinic director Gail Ruhl initially identified the pathogen which is new to the United States 1 ½ weeks ago and submitted confirmation samples to the USDA http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2015/Issue24/ . Upon receipt of the Illinois samples, they diagnosed the fungus, contacted us at the University of Illinois Plant Clinic and submitted the Illinois samples to the USDA for confirmation at our request.

Scouting for the disease has been active in Illinois. Jennifer Chaky , Pioneer Plant Diagnostic Clinic, also has samples from Bureau County diagnosed with Tar spot and we have additional LaSalle county samples from our University of Illinois Extension Agronomist in Northern IL, Russ Higgins.

Figure 1. Black ascomata of Tar spot on corn leaves in LaSalle County, IL.  Note that orange rust pustules are also present on this leaf.  Photo courtesy of Russ Higgins University of Illinois Extension

Figure 1. Symptoms of Tar spot on corn leaves in LaSalle County, IL. Note that orange rust pustules are also present on this leaf. Photo courtesy of Russ Higgins University of Illinois Extension

Tar spot has distinctive symptoms. The fungal fruiting body, called an ascomata, really does look like a spot of tar on the leaf. Lesions are black, sunken oval to circular. They can be small flecks of about 1/64” up to about 5/64”. The lesions can merge together to produce an affected area up to 3/8”. If you run your finger across the leaf you will feel tiny bumps.

Figure 2. Microscopic view of  fruiting structure of Tar spot from Bureau County, IL.  Photo courtesy of DuPont Pioneer Diagnostician, Jennifer Chaky

Figure 2. Microscopic view of fruiting structure of Tar spot from Bureau County, IL. Photo courtesy of DuPont Pioneer Diagnostician, Jennifer Chaky

 

Prior to the Indiana finding, Tar spot was known to occur only in cool humid areas at high elevations in Latin America. There are actually 2 fungi that cause Tar spot disease on corn Phyllachora maydis and Monographella maydis. While Monographella maydis is known to be able to cause economic yield losses in Latin America, Phyllachora maydis is not known to significantly reduce yield. Other pathogens may be confused with Tar spot, especially the overwintering teliospore (black) phase of corn rust. Also, there are many fungi, called saprophytes that feed on dead corn tissue and form black splotches on the leaves.

To date only one of the pathogens, Phyllachora maydis, has been found in IN and IL. If you suspect Tar spot please submit a sample to the University of Illinois Plant Clinic. We would like to get a comprehensive idea of distribution in the state. For more information on tar spot of corn, please see the USDA-ARS Diagnostic Fact Sheet: http://nt.ars-grin.gov/taxadescriptions/factsheets/index.cfm?thisapp=Phyllachoramaydis


Ewing Demonstration Center Fall Field Day – September 10th

The University of Illinois Extension will host its annual Ewing Demonstration Center Fall Field Day on Thursday, September 10, 2015 at 9:00 a.m.  The Ewing Demonstration Center is located in southern Illinois about 20 miles south of Mt. Vernon at 16132 N. Ewing Rd; Ewing, IL 62836.  It is on the north edge of the village of Ewing, north of the Ewing Grade School on north Ewing Road.  Watch for signs.

The ongoing research this year includes trials on soybean cover crops, nitrogen management in corn, corn maturity, corn seeding rates, soybean seed treatments, and a pumpkin variety trial.

 

The topics to be discussed at Field Day include:

 

Soybean Weed Management

  • Ron Krausz, Manager, SIU Belleville Research Center

2015 Cropping Season Challenges

  • Emerson Nafziger, Extension Crop Specialist, University of Illinois

Planning Ahead for the 2016 Wheat Crop

  • Robert Bellm, Extension Educator, University of Illinois

Results of 2015 Corn and Soybean Insect Surveys: Implications for 2016

  • Mike Gray, Extension Entomologist, University of Illinois

Making the Most of Prevent Plant Acres with Cover Crops

  • Nathan Johanning, Extension Educator, University of Illinois

 

The field day is free and open to anyone interested and lunch will be provided.  Certified Crop Advisor CEUs will also be offered (CM –  1.0, PM – 1.0, SW – 0.5).  For additional information, contact Nathan Johanning (618-687-1727; njohann@illinois.edu) or Marc Lamczyk (618-439-3178; lamczyk@illinois.edu).