Many in the agricultural community, as well as researchers annually rate corn for disease as a means to assess hybrid response, hybrid effectiveness, or potential disease level on field productivity. It can be difficult to rain the eye to accurately measure disease on foliage, and differences in the type and size of the structure or lesion associated with the pathogen varies significantly. The four links below will direct you to disease area diagrams we developed in order to help you obtain accurate disease severity estimates in your fields. The method you use to assess disease severity may differ depending on the overall objective. The diagrams below are cor grey leaf spot, northern corn leaf blight, common rust, and southern rust. These can be printed, laminated, and taken to the field with you to assist your ratings.
Southern rust is caused by a fungal pathogen that does not overwinter in Illinois. Instead, it blows in from warmer regions during the growing season. When conditions favor spread and development of this disease significant damage can occur, especially if it arrives before tasseling (VT). For more information on Southern rust, check out the Crop Protection Network publication by clicking here. Yesterday our colleagues detected this disease in Southeast Missouri. With the hurricane/tropical storm remnant pushing northward, and warm weather forecast, there is a good chance we could see some movement into the Southern / Western part of the state within the next 7-10 days, and there may be some in Southwest Illinois already. Scouts should be keeping their eyes out for this disease, as things can escalate quickly. Suspect samples should be sent to the University of Illinois Plant Diagnostic Clinic for confirmation. Images can also be sent to me via twitter @ILplantdoc, or email at email@example.com.
We have a new tracking system for rusts in corn that we are using this year. To access the maps click here. These maps are very useful for tracking a disease that does not overwinter in the area as it needs to spread, establish, and produce more spores to move, unlike diseases that overwinter on residue, alternate hosts, etc. That means you can see the disease spread and know if you are at risk for it moving into your area. If your fields are at a critical point in growth, and the disease is detected nearby, in season management can be considered, and unneeded treatments avoided. We also have a tar spot map. This disease overwinters in the region, and little is known about disease movement and spread within a season. Data indicate it can move at least from field to field; however, after last season there is reason to believe it may move longer distances, but we simply are speculating at this point. This map therefore can tell you when the disease is starting to be detected in certain regions, and also if the disease has been detected in new counties. For more on tar spot click here.
Today colleagues in Indiana reported tar spot presence in some of their research plots located in North West IN. They found an extremely low number of stroma (less than 10) when assessing approximately 500 feet of plots. When you see or read about the report keep a few things to keep in mind:
1) The amount detected was exceptionally low, and not close to the widespread severity we saw early last year. For example, on July 5th, 2018, we detected tar spot in DeKalb at 100% incidence (every plant had some) with an average of 6% severity at the ear leaf at VT. Those were wet fields, closed canopies, and a history of moderate tar spot.
2) It will be hot and dry for the foreseeable future. Tar spot likes moderate temperatures and persistent humid conditions. In corn that is still in the early vegetative stages, the persistent levels of humidity the pathogen likely needs to sporulate, then transfer those spores to plants, germinate, and infect, might not be met. Last year at this time our fields in DeKalb and Monmouth were at or approaching VT around this time. This season we are at V6 and V7, respectfully. There is not much canopy to retain moisture, especially when conditions 3 weeks ago were favorable for disease onset.
3) Continue to scout, but be aware that the majority of the chatter out there about tar spot being detected in the Midwest is based on misdiagnoses of insect frass. Spraying poop with fungicide is not going to benefit your crop. Click here for more information on that particular issue. If you have any suspect samples, send them to the UI plant diagnostic clinic, send me images, and let us know the approximate location of the putative detection. We are collecting samples as we did last season.
4) We have observed tar spot in Illinois every year since it was first detected. This disease overwinters in the region, just like grey leaf spot, white mold in soybeans, and Fusarium head blight in small grains. Last year was the first time that the disease was severe enough to cause yield loss. Detecting it is not uncommon. When it arrives and the amount of symptoms expressed during critical periods of grain fill is what is most important. Last year was the perfect storm of susceptible crop, environment conducive to disease for a prolonged period of time, and infection during a period critical for yield. We will observe it this season, the question is when, and how severe and widespread it will be.
5) Fields at highest risk for tar spot will be no till, corn after corn fields experiencing moderate temperatures and persistent humid conditions, and had tar spot last season. Our collaborative research team has preliminary data indicating that any infested residue on the surface of fields can produce viable spores. Tillage may potentially reduce the overall number of spores available for local infection of a particular field by reducing the amount of surface residue on the field, but there is no reason to expect the act of tillage alone to impact survival and viability of spores produced on the residue remaining on the field surface. Planting into fields that were soybean last year may reduce initial disease onset. This disease isn’t a rust. Keep in mind, until we have hard data these are simply assumptions based on experience and similar pathosystems.
6) It is evident that there is a lot that is not understood about this pathosystem and in particular, pathogen biology and ecology. Our tar spot coalition, which consists of a group of pathologists and breeders from the Midwest and Florida, is working on coordinated trials and collaborative projects to learn as much as possible about this disease in an effective, efficient manner. We are working hard to help our producers minimize potential losses due to this disease.
In sum, keep scouting, don’t freak out, and stay hydrated- it’s going to get hot out there!
On a side note, I’d be more concerned about the recent report or Southern rust from Southeast Missouri, especially for our #corn growers in the southern portion of the state. That disease blows around, and with hot temperatures and a predicted hurricane remnant moving in, it could move a bit, especially in some of these late plated corn fields.
Come to Champaign, Illinois on July 22nd for the first annual field crop Pest and Pathogen Field Day from 9am-noon. Registration, doughnuts, and coffee will start at 8:30 am. Parking for the event will be available at the Agricultural and Biological Engineering farm on the UIUC South Farm Facility, located at 3603 South Race Street, Urbana, IL, 61802. Click HERE to register.
Join us to walk research plots and learn about insect and disease identification in field crops, current research on field crop entomology, nematode, and plant disease research, and discuss local and regional production issues with entomology and plant pathology experts from the University of Illinois Department of Crop Science.
Examples of some of topics that will be discussed:
Seed treatments for suppressing soil borne diseases of soybean and corn
Lesion nematodes in corn and soybean
Understanding HG types and resistance to soybean cyst nematode
Current research projects of tar spot on corn
Bacterial leaf streak of corn
Red crown rot in soybeans
Fungicides in crop production
Mycorrhizae in crop production
Corn root worm research
Defoliators in field crops
Thrips and Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus
Understanding residual control of insect pests
Cover crops and insects
and much more!
RSVP today- this is a free field day, bring sunscreen, a hat, and plenty of questions!
Over the past week there has not been much activity as far as corn disease is concerned. The only exception has been the detection of very light common rust infections on some corn in the north central and southern parts of the state. Although the occurrence of common rust on corn this early in development may be a concern to some, there are a few things that you should keep in mind.
1) Common rust, caused by Puccinia sorghi, is an obligate pathogen and requires living hosts to grow and reproduce. It blows into Illinois from other regions each season. It does not overwinter in Illinois.
2) Common rust is a disease that can be problematic during exceptionally cool and wet summers. Disease development occurs between 60-74F. When temperatures exceed 74 F disease progress slows and pustules may cease being active.
3) The amount of pustules needed to cause yield loss by common rust is high. Consider that it takes over 160 pustules on a leaf to equal 1% severity.
With temperatures increasing, common rust likely should not be on the top of your diseases to be concerned about list. That doesn’t mean you should not be scouting and paying attention to the situation in your fields. Scout often, and be thorough. One thing we do not want to miss is the occurance of southern rust, which is starting up in Georgia and Louisiana.
One disease I would like people to keep an eye out is bacterial leaf streak on corn. We have had this disease in Northern Illinois for a few years now, and it likely is much more widespread than we think. This disease is most likely to occur in no-till, corn on corn production systems and wet conditions (just like what we have had the past several weeks). We have had several putative images over the past 10 days. If you see anything that might be bacterial leaf streak please send to the UIUC Plant Diagnostic Clinic for assessment. Feel free to text me images or email images as well.
For more information on bacterial leaf streak, click here.
Corn producers in parts of the state are nearing the point in time where they are thinking about fungicide applications to their fields. In a recent post on my blog I discussed tar spot and also mentioned a recent publication that shows that a single fungicide application at the VT/R1 growth stage has the greatest chance of providing the producer with a return on their investment. Click here for access to this article.
Nobody knows your farm history and yields better than you do. That is why running the numbers yourself and thinking about your past experiences can help you determine how likely you are to break even or make a profit using various programs under your specific situation.
To calculate how much yield needs to be protected to break even at a given application cost (fungicide cost plus application costs) and commodity price:
yield protected (bu/A) = application cost ($/A) / corn price ($/bu).
This formula can be used to help you determine the amount of protected yield and commodity price needed to break even and see a return on your investment.
For example, to see how much yield would need to be protected by a fungicide to pay for the cost of a $26/ A total application cost at a $4.50 per bu grain price:
yield protected = ($26.00 per A )/ ($4.50 per bu) = 5.8 bu/ A
the same situation but a program that costs $30 per A =
($30.00 per A)/($4.50 per bu) = 6.7 bu per A.
Below is a table of the potential protected yields needed to break even at a few different commodity prices and total application costs.
Knowing your application costs for 1 or 2 trips and product, and estimating the commodity price, what sort of yield response will you need? Have you seen this sort of yield response on your field before or not? Has this response been fairly consistent? Knowing this information can be very useful in selecting fungicide programs for your specific fields.
Recently I posted information on Twitter about tar spot forecasts that I will be making on my website throughout the season. It is important to know how to interpret these forecasts. For more information, see the article by clicking here
As many of you are aware, our tar spot coalition is working to refine a tar spot model developed by colleagues at the University of Wisconsin Madison this season. This model, currently named Tarspotter, uses weather data to predict risk of tar spot disease on corn. For more information on the model and fungicide applications click here
Much of the corn in Illinois is just emerging, but some is past the V6-V8 stage. This is the point in time where paying attention to the weather, and future forecasts can help you determine if a fungicide application for disease management is needed. Remember that there is an approximate 14 day latent period with tar spot, meaning that if your plants are infected today, you likely will not see the black tar spots on for another 2 weeks. Tar spot does not like the warm weather moving through much of the state, so I do not expect the values in the middle part of the state to change much, even with the rains forecasted over the next five days.
I have heard reports (unconfirmed) of common rust in parts of the state, and Southern rust appears to be starting up in Texas. It is very important to be in your fields scouting for diseases prior to the VT stage to help you know if you need to pull the trigger on a fungicide this season.
When you are out at the club, dropping the bass is a good thing. When you are planting soybeans and have soil pathogen issues, dropping the base can be a bad thing. Why? See the new article posted on the Field Crop Disease Blog found by clicking here.
This season we will be using a new system to monitor and track southern rust in Illinois #corn. We will be operating and managing a site that clientele can access and view in real time. I will provide information pertaining to the site once it is operational in a few days.
Why do we need to monitor rusts? Because rusts are obligate fungal pathogens. This means they need a living, green host to grow and reproduce. Rusts do not survive our Illinois winters and instead overwinter in warmer southern locations. Once temperatures increase, spores from the south are blown north. Corn planted in the United states can then be infected as the pathogen infects new corn, produces more spores, and moves on air currents to new areas and fields. Therefore, by tracking rusts we can determine if and when fields may be at risk. This information can help make timely fungicide applications or avoid unneeded applications. This process takes time and often rusts do not reach our corn until later in the season, once yield has been made. However, due to our late planting throughout the state we may see these rusts infect plants at earlier stages in growth and development, which may result in greater potential yield impact if disease occurs. This is why scouting your corn this year will be especially important.
In the meantime, any growers, consultants, ag professionals in Illinois that observe rust on corn should send a picture to myself at firstname.lastname@example.org OR tweet a picture to me @ILplantdoc and @corndisease with #southernrust hashtag. Southern rust, common rust, and other diseases may not be easily identified by images, and may require expert analyses. Samples of corn rust can be sent to the UIUC Plant Diagnostic clinic– instructions found HERE.